Dual Citizenship Netherlands
Dutch citizenship is based primarily on the principle of jus sanguinis (right of blood).
The Netherlands is fully part of the European Union. This means that a citizen of the Netherlands is also a citizen of the EU, and can travel and reside freely in any of the member states of the EU.
Dual citizenship is permitted but on a limited basis. See Dutch Dual Citizenship for further information.
Dutch Dual Citizenship
Dual citizenship is allowed in the following limited circumstances:
- those who obtained dual citizenship at birth;
- those who acquire Dutch citizenship through the option procedure (see below);
- those who acquire Dutch citizenship through naturalization who obtain an exemption from the requirement to renounce the prior citizenship (see naturalization);
- Dutch citizens to naturalize in another country who are exempt from the loss of nationality rule.
Dutch citizens may lose their Dutch citizenship through long residence abroad while having more than one citizenship or acquisition or another citizenship.
Before January 1, 1985, Dutch citizens lost their citizenship where they were born outside the Kingdom of the Netherlands, lived for an uninterrupted period of 10 years outside the Kingdom after reaching age 21 and did not submit notification that they wished to retain Dutch citizenship before the 10 year period was up. This was applicable to Dutch citizens born abroad before January 1, 1954.
Between January 1, 1985 and March 31, 2003
Under the 1985 legislation, Dutch citizens born abroad who also held citizenship of the country of birth lost Dutch citizenship if they lived in the country of birth for 10 years after age 18 and were still citizens of the country of birth. However, those who were issued a Dutch passport or proof of Dutch citizenship on or after January 1, 1990 are deemed to never have lost Dutch citizenship (effective February 1, 2001). Former citizens who were not issued a passport or proof of citizenship in 1990 or later were given a short period of time to acquire Dutch citizenship by option (which expired on March 31, 2005).
From April 1, 2003
Since April 1, 2003, Dutch citizens with dual citizenship will lose their Dutch citizenship if they hold a foreign citizenship and reside outside the Kingdom of the Netherlands or the European Union for 10 years.
Dutch citizens who have dual citizenship and reside abroad may keep their Dutch citizenship by having a principal place of residence in the Netherlands or another EU member state for at least a year, or applying for a Dutch passport of proof of Dutch citizenship before April 1, 2013, before the end of the 10 year period. A new 10 year period starts on the day the person is issued with a passport or proof of citizenship.
By Acquisition of Another Citizenship
Those age 18 or over who voluntarily acquired another citizenship before April 1, 2003 automatically lost Dutch citizenship.
From April 1, 2003 onwards, naturalization in another country causes loss of Dutch citizenship unless one of the following exemptions applies:
- The person is born in the country of the other citizenship and has a principal residence there at the time of acquisition of that nationality;
- If before turning age 18, the person has had a principal residence in the country of the other nationality for at least 5 years continuously;
- If the person is married to a person who possesses the citizenship he or she wishes to acquire;
- These exemptions do not apply to Austrian, Norwegian or Danish citizenship, or to Belgian citizens before April 28, 2008, or to Luxembourgian citizens before July 10, 2009.